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Decommissioning issues

Eventually all good things must come to an end. In the case of nuclear facilities, the decommissioning process involves removing all of the radioactivity and residual contamination to restore the site to its original state. Under the laws of most countries, the licensed owner of the facility is responsible for funding such work. The links on this page deal with the decommissioning process for both large and small facilities.

Note: Links identified with are in Adobe Acrobat PDF format. You may need a special plugin to access these pages. Some web sites may not be in English. See index here for language codes, such as    JP / EN .


  • Aging Nuclear Power Plants: Managing Plant Life & Decommissioning (US)   EN 
  • Argonne National Lab D & D Program (US)   EN 
  • BNFL Decommissioning Experience (UK)   EN 
  • Characterization, Treatment & Conditioning of Radioactive Graphite from Decommissioning of Nuclear Reactors (IAEA)   EN 
  • Consideration of Early Closure or Continued Operation of a Nuclear Power Plant (IAEA)   EN 
  • Cooperation & Consensus in the Development of Decommissioning Approaches (US)   EN 
  • DDFA - Deactivation & Decommissioning Focus Area (US)   EN 
  •   DDFA Technology Vendor Product Links (US)   EN 
  • DDIS - Deactivation & Decommissioning Information System (US)   EN 
  • DDSC - Decontamination & Decommissioning Science Consortium (US)   EN 
  • DecomIT (UK)   EN 
  • Decommission improbable - Past, present & future (UK)   EN 
  • Decommissioning: Lessons to Learn (IAEA)   EN 
  • Decommissioning & Dismantling of Nuclear Facilities: Status, Approaches, Challenges (NEA)   EN 
  • Decommissioning of Facilities Using Radioactive Material - Safety Requirements (IAEA)   EN 
  • Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Facilities (NEA)   EN 
  • Decommissioning of Research Reactors: Evolution, State of the Art, Open Issues (IAEA)   EN 
  • Decommissioning Policies in the EU (EU)   EN 
  • Decommissioning Regulations & Activities (US)   EN 
  • Decommissioning Resource Manual (US)   EN 
  • Decommissioning Status of Shutdown Nuclear Installations (EU)   EN 
  • Decontamination Techniques for Decommissioning (NEA)   EN 
  • DOE Decommissioning Program (US)   EN 
  • DOE Recycling Program (US)   EN 
  • DPAG - Dounreay Particles Advisory Group (UK)   EN 
  • EUNDETRAF - European Nuclear Decommissioning Training Facility (International)   EN 
  • European Decommissioning Website (EU)   EN 
  • European Regulatory Aspects on Decommissioning (EU)   EN 
  • Facility Deactivation Guide - Methods & Practices Handbook (US)   EN 
  • HPS - Decommissioning Section (US)   EN 
  • HSE Policy on Decommissioning (UK)   EN 
  •   Review of British Energy’s Decommissioning Strategy (UK)   EN 
  •   Review of Magnox Electric’s Decommissioning Strategy (UK)   EN 
  • International Co-operative Decommissioning Program (NEA)   EN 
  • Is there a need for regulation on an int'l basis? (UK)   EN 
  • LLW from Decommissioning (US)   EN 
  • Management of Problematic Waste & Material Generated During the Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities (IAEA)   EN 
  • Managing the Early Termination of the Operation of Nuclear Power Plants (IAEA)   EN 
  • NDA - Nuclear Decommissioning Authority   EN 
  •   NDA Draft Strategy for Consultation (UK)   EN 
  • NEA Issue Brief - Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Plants (NEA)   EN 
  • NFDI - National Facility Deactivation Initiative (US)   EN 
  • NRC Regulation of Decommissioning Activities (US)   EN 
  • Nuclear decommissioning: a problem that won’t go away (US)   EN 
  • Nuclear Decommissioning FactFile (UK)   EN 
  • NUREG-1628 - Staff Responses to FAQs Concerning Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Reactors (US)   EN 
  • Ohio Decommissioning Program (US)   EN 
  • Operational & Decommissioning Experience with Fast Reactors (IAEA)   EN 
  • Planning, managing & organizing the decommissioning of nuclear facilities: lessons learned (IAEA)   EN 
  • Record Keeping for the Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities (IAEA)   EN 
  • The Regulatory Challenges of Decommissioning Nuclear Reactors (NEA)   EN 
  •   Les autorités de sûreté face au démantèlement des réacteurs nucléaires (NEA)   FR 
  • Research Reactor Utilization, Safety, Decommissioning, Fuel & Waste Management (IAEA)   EN 
  • A Review of Decontamination and Decommissioning Technology Development Programs (US)   EN 
  • Safety Considerations for Research Reactors in Extended Shutdown (IAEA)   EN 
  • Standard Format & Content for Safety Related Decommissioning Documents (IAEA)   EN 
  • Technologies for gas cooled reactor decommissioning (IAEA)   EN 
  • Thematic Network on Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities (EU)   EN 
  • Safety Considerations in the Transition from Operation to Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities (IAEA)   EN 
  • Selection of Decommissioning Strategies: Issues & Factors (IAEA)   EN 
  • The Transition from Operation to Decommissioning of Nuclear Installations (IAEA)   EN 
  • UIC Report: Decommissioning Nuclear Facilities (Australia)   EN 
  • Waste & Material Disposition Service Center (US)   EN 
  • WNA Decommissioning Task Group (International)   EN 
  • WPDD - NEA Working Party on the Management of Materials from Decommissioning & Dismantling (NEA)   EN 
  •   WPDD National Factsheets (NEA)   EN 

    Reactor projects

  • AT-1 Facility (France)   EN 
  • Berkeley Magnox (UK)   EN 
  • Big Rock Point (US)   EN 
  • BR-3 (Belgium)   EN 
  • Bradwell (UK)   EN 
  • Brookhaven (US)   EN 
  •   Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor Decommissioning Project (US)   EN 
  •   Brookhaven HFBR Decommissioning Project (US)   EN 
  • Connecticut Yankee (US)   EN 
  • CP-5 Test Reactor Decommissioning (US)   EN 
  •   CP-5 Research Reactor D&D Project (US)   EN 
  • Fort St. Vrain (US)   EN 
  •   Fort St. Vrain [more] (US)   EN 
  •   Fort St. Vrain [more 2] (US)   EN 
  •   Fort St. Vrain Decommissioning Photos (US)   EN 
  • Fugen Nuclear Power Station (Japan)   EN 
  • Hanford C Reactor Interim Safe Storage (US)   EN 
  • JPDR - Japan Power Demonstration Reactor (Japan)   EN 
  •   JPDR (Japan)   JP 
  • KGR - Greisfald Nuclear Power Plant (Germany)   EN 
  • KRBA - Gundremmingen A (Germany)   EN 
  • List of Shutdown US Civilian Reactors (US)   EN 
  • Maine Yankee Decommissioning Project (US)   EN 
  •   Maine Yankee Regulatory Oversight (US)   EN 
  • NPP Rheinsberg Waste Stores (Germany)   EN 
  • Risoe - Dansk Dekommissionering (Denmark)   DK / EN 
  • Shoreham Nuclear Power Station (US)   EN 
  • SONGS - San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station (US)   EN 
  • Trojan Nuclear Plant (US)   EN 
  •   Trojan Large-Component Removal Project (US)   EN 
  • Vandellos I (Spain)   EN 
  •   Decommissioning in Spain (NEA)   EN 
  •   La problemàtica del desmantellament (Spain)   ES 
  •   Radiological Protection & ALARA Organization (Spain)   EN 
  •   Vandellos I (Spain)   ES 
  • WAGR - Windscale Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor (UK)   EN 
  •   WAGR Project website (UK)   EN 
  • Yankee Rowe (US)   EN 
  • Zion (US)   EN 

    Other projects

  • BNFL Sellafield (UK)   EN 
  • Capenhurst E21 Enrichment (UK)   EN 
  • Codem Marcoule (France)   FR 
  • FUSRAP - Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Plan (US)   EN 
  • Hanford Environmental Restoration Project (US)   EN 
  • Hobeg Fuel Fabrication Plant (Germany)   EN 
  •   More on Hobeg (Germany)   EN 
  • IDD - INEEL Integrated D & D Program (US)   EN 
  • ISOLUS - Interim Storage of Laid-Up Submarines (UK)   EN 
  • Marcoule UP-1 (France)   EN 
  • Miamisburg Closure Project (US)   EN 
  • Mound Tritium Facility Large Scale Demonstration Project (US)   EN 
  • Nuclear Powered Submarine Inactivation & Disposal in the US & Russia (Russia)   EN 
  •   Nuclear Powered Submarine Inactivation & Disposal in the US & Russia (Russia)   RU 
  • PPPL TFTR Decommissioning (US)   EN 
  • RFETS - Rocky Flats Closure Project (US)   EN 
  • Russian Nuclear Submarine Decommissioning (Russia)   EN 
  • Savannah River 321-M Large Scale Demonstration Project (US)   EN 
  • UKAEA - UK Atomic Energy Authority (UK)   EN 
  • VKTA - Verein für Kernverfahrenstechnik und Analytik Rossendorf (Germany)   DE / EN 
  • WAK Karlsruhe (Germany)   DE / EN 
  • Wismut (Germany)   DE 


  • The Clearance Page (South Korea)   EN / KR 
  • Maricopa Environmental Monitoring Site (US)   EN 
  • MARSSIM - Multi Agency Survey & Site Investigation Manual (US)   EN 
  •   MARSSIM Technical Forum (US)   EN 
  • SCFA - Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area (US)   EN 

    Costs & financing

  • CODEM - Financeur d'opérations de déconstruction d'installations nucléaires sur le site de Marcoule (France)   FR 
  • Cost Data for Environmental Remediation Technologies (US)   EN 
  • Decommissioning Nuclear Power Plants: Policies, Strategies & Costs (NEA)   EN 
  • Financial Aspects of Decommissioning (IAEA)   EN 
  • Liabilities identification & long-term management at national level (NEA)   EN 
  • NDA - Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (UK)   EN 
  • Nuclear Decommissioning Financing Committee (US)   EN 
  • Nuclear Decommissioning Funds Clarification Act (US)   EN 
  • Nuclear Power Plant Decommissioning: Financial Considerations (US)   EN 
  • Nuclear Regulation: NRC's Assurances of Decommissioning Funding During Utility Restructuring Could Be Improved (US)   EN 
  • Optimal Asset Allocation of Nuclear Decommissioning Trusts (Sweden)   EN 
  • A Proposed Standardised List of Items for Costing Purposes (NEA)   EN 
  • Sklad za financiranje razgradnje NEK / Nuclear Waste & Decommissioning Fund (Slovenia)   SI / EN 
  • Stilllegungsfonds und Entsorgungsfonds für Kernkraftwerke (Switzerland)   DE / FR 
  • Stranded Nuclear Waste (US)   EN 
  • White Paper on Legacy Management (UK)   EN 
  •   Responses to White Paper (UK)   EN 

    Environmental remediation & restoration

  • About Remediation (Canada)   EN 
  • Army Corps of Engineers Management Guidelines for LLRW Site Remediation (US)   EN 
  • Bechtel River Protection Project (US)   EN 
  • Bioremediation Discussion Group (US)   EN 
  • CEMI - Center for Environmental Management Information (US)   EN 
  • CLAIRE - Contaminated Land Applications in Real Environments (UK)   EN 
  • Clinch River Environmental Restoration Program (US)   EN 
  • Contaminated Land & Environmental Liability (UK)   EN 
  • Control & Remediation of Radioactively Contaminated Land (UK)   EN 
  • CRESP - Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (US)   EN 
  • DENIX - Defense Environmental Network & Information eXchange (US)   EN 
  • DNAPL Source Zone Initiative (US)   EN 
  • DOE Environmental Assessments (US)   EN 
  • DOE TechCon Remediation Initiatives (US)   EN 
  • EM International (US)   EN 
  • ESTCP - Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (US)   EN 
  • ETTP - East Tennessee Technology Park (US)   EN 
  • Extent of Environmental Contamination by Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material & Technological Options for Mitigation (IAEA)   EN 
  • Final Rule on License Termination (US)   EN 
  • FRTR - Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable (US)   EN 
  • GAAT - Gunite & Associated Tanks Project (US)   EN 
  •   GAAT Waste Conditioning System (US)   EN 
  • GET - Gateway to Environmental Technology (US)   EN 
  • GNB Gesellschaft für Nuklear-Behälter mbH (Germany)   DE 
  • GWRTAC - Groundwater Remediation Technologies Analysis Center (US)   EN 
  • Hanford Groundwater/Vadose Zone Integration Project (US)   EN 
  • ITRD - USDOE Treatment Remediation Demonstration Program (US)   EN 
  • KHG - Kerntechnische Hilfsdienst GmbH (Germany)   DE / EN 
  • Navy Facilities Enviromental Services (US)   EN 
  • NICOLE - Network for Industrially Contaminated Land in Europe (International)   EN 
  • Nuclear Cleanup Guide (US)   EN 
  • Remediation of Areas Contaminated by Past Activities & Accidents (IAEA)   EN 
  • Remediation of Sites with Dispersed Radioactive Contamination (IAEA)   EN 
  • Remediation Technologies Screening Matrix & Reference Guide (US)   EN 
  • RTDF - Remediation Technologies Development Forum (US)   EN 
  • Safegrounds (UK)   EN 
  • Site Remediation Technology Profiles (US)   EN 
  • Tech Tree (US)   EN 
  • TTG - Tanks Technology Guide (US)   EN 
  • US DOE Closure Planning Guidance (US)   EN 

    Other resources

  • (UK)   EN 
  • EC-CND - Co-ordination Network on Decommissioning of Nuclear Installations (Germany)   EN 
  • European Decommissioning Contacts List (EU)   EN 
  • IAEA Decommissioning Issues Forum (International)   EN 
  • RANDEC - Research Association for Nuclear Decommissioning (Japan)   JP / EN 
  • TLG Services (US)   EN 
  • WNA Nuclear Facility Decommissioning Database (International)   EN 


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    (This page last updated 2009-02-11).